Reference Keys

Each specimen illustrated is accompanied by a measurement, together with a number-letter combination. The measurement, in centimetres, represents the maximum length or height of the item; the number represents the source, and the letters refer to the linguistic or cultural group who used that item. This number-letter system is also used within the text.

Thus, by referring to the indexes, the reader may determine that a fish hook notated 10.HA is in the Museum of Man, Ottawa, and was collected from or used by the Haida people. The cultural designation refers to that particular specimen and does not necessarily imply that no other group used that type of hook.

Specimens having two numbers will show both the reference from which they were drawn and the collection where they are housed.

Drawings that reconstruct a fishing method, such as a fence weir, or show the use of fishing tackle or gear, such as a herring rake, carry a number that refers to the source of this information.

Some items of fishing gear do not have any known provenience, but if they are from the Northwest Coast area and of sufficient interest, I have chosen to include them anyway.

Cultural Key

BC Bella Coola
CS Coast Salish
HA Haida
KW Kwagiutl
MK Makah
NK Nootka
TL Tlingit
TS Tsimshian
X Provenience not known

Reference Index

10. National Museum of Man, Ottawa, ON

11. British Columbia Provincial Museum, Victoria, BC

12. Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC

13. Vancouver Centennial Museum, Vancouver, BC

14. Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC

15. Hastings Mill Museum, Vancouver, BC

16. Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, Seattle, WA

17. Washington State Historical Society, Tacoma, WA

18. Gerber Collection, Seattle, WA

19. Portland Art Museum, Portland, OR

20. Museum of Primitive Art, New York, NY

21. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC

22. American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

23. Museum of the American Indian, New York, NY

24. Alaska State Museum, Juneau, AK

25. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

25a. British Museum, London, England

26. City Archives, Vancouver, BC

27. Vancouver Public Library, Photo Archives, Vancouver, BC

28. “The Kwakiutl of Vancouver Island.” Franz Boas

29. “The Northern and Central Nootkan Tribes.” Philip Drucker

30. Indians of the Northwest Coast. Philip Drucker

31. Indian Life on the Northwest Coast of North America. Erna Gunther

32. The Coast Salish of British Columbia. Homer Barnett

33. The Tlingit Indians. Krause and Gunther

34. Indians of the Northwest Coast. P.E. Goddard

35. “Coast Indians of Southern Alaska and Northern British Columbia.” A. Niblack

36. Indians of Puget Sound. Haeberlin and Gunther

37. The Upper Stalo Indians. Wilson Duff

38. B.C. Studies. Nos. 6 and 7. U.B.C.

39. Current Archaeological Research of the Northwest Coast. G. McDonald

40. “Utilization of Fishes, Beach Foods and Marine Animals by the Tl’úhus People of B.C.” Dorothy Kennedy and Randy Bouchard

41. Indian Food. Health and Welfare, Canada

42. Indians of the Pacific Northwest. Ruth Underhill

43. Art of the Kwakiutl Indians. Audrey Hawthorn

44. Art of the Northwest Coast Indians. Bruce Inverarity

45. Images: Stone: BC. Wilson Duff and Hilary Stewart

46. Form and Freedom. Bill Holm and William Reid

47. Art in the Life of the Northwest Coast Indians. Erna Gunther

48. People of the Potlatch. Vancouver Art Gallery/University of British Columbia

49. Art of the Northwest Coast. Lowie Museum of Anthropology, University of California

50. Arts of a Vanished Era. Whatcom Museum of History and Art

51. Indian Primitive. Ralph Andrews

52. Coast Salish. B.C. Heritage Series Volume 2

53. Haida. B.C. Heritage Series Volume 4

54. Stone Fish Traps of the Bella Bella. Anthony Pomoroy. Current Research Reports, Simon Fraser University

55. Augustus Wilson of the Masset Band, Masset, Queen Charlotte Islands, BC

56. Chief Charles Jones of the Pachenaht Band, Port Renfrew, Vancouver Island, BC

57. The Indian Voice. April, 1976

58. The Adventures and Sufferings of John R. Jewitt. John R. Jewitt

59. Marine Fishes of British Columbia. G.C. Carl

60. Photo by the author

61. Primitive Art. Franz Boas

62. Canadian Native Indian Prints Ltd., Vancouver, BC

63. Photo by Pat Severs, archaeologist. Director, Blue Jackets Creek dig, Queen Charlotte Islands, BC

64. American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal. Vol. 12. James Dean

65. Feasting with Cannibals. Stanley Walens. Northwest Coast Conference, Simon Fraser University, 1976.

66. The Religion of the Kwakiutl Indians. Part 2. F. Boas

67. “Ethnology of the Kwakiutl.” F. Boas. 1921

68. “Tsimshian Mythology.” F. Boas. 1925

69. “Analysis of the First Salmon Ceremony.” E. Gunther

70. Katzie Ethnographic Notes. Wayne Suttles. Anthropology in BC. 1955

71. The Salmon. Roderick Haig-Brown. 1974

72. Reminiscences of the West Coast of Vancouver Island. Rev. C. Moser

73. “Eulachon—Salvation.” Scott Lawrance. Raincoast Chronicles. No. 5

74. Dr. Nancy Turner, Botany Division, B.C. Provincial Museum, Victoria

75. The Economic Life of the Coast Salish of Haro and Rosario Straits. Wayne Suttles

76. David, Young Chief of the Quileutes. Ruth Kirk

77. Artifacts of the Northwest Coast Indians. Hilary Stewart

78. The Tsimshian—Their Arts and Their Music. Barbeau, Wingert, Garfield

79. Indian Petroglyphs of the Pacific Northwest. Ray and Beth Hill

80. The Bella Coola Indians. T.F. McIlwraith

81. The Excavation of Water Saturated Archaeological Sites (wet sites) on the Northwest Coast of North America. Edited by Dale Croes

82. Notes on the Ethnology of the Indians of Puget Sound. T.T. Waterman